Collegiate Inventors Competition

Take a look back at the tradition of discovery and innovation
demonstrated through the years at the
Collegiate Inventors Competition.

Winners
By Name

Begin by selecting the first letter of the participant's last name. Then choose a name from the provided list:

Search for any of our winners by name, and discover the work that earned each of them top honors.

Winners By University

Select a university:

These colleges and universities are home to the outstanding student-advisor relationships that have produced
our winning inventions.

2013 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate First

Aaron Ring
Aaron Ring
Kipp Weiskopf
Kipp Weiskopf
ENTRY NAME:
Engineered SIRPα Variants as Immunotherapeutic Adjuvants to Anti-Cancer
SCHOOL:
Stanford University

ADVISOR NAME:
Irving Weissman
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Cancer is a leading cause of death, and many cancer treatments exhibit substantial toxicity despite minimal efficacy; we invented "high-affinity SIRPα variants" that bind cancer cells and stimulate attack by patients' own immune systems. By themselves, the SIRPα variants produce no toxicity to normal cells, but when combined with tumor-specific therapeutic antibodies, they exhibit remarkable synergy by stimulating immune cells called macrophages to engulf and destroy cancer cells.

2013 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Second

Nisarg Shah
Nisarg Shah
ENTRY NAME:
A Bioactive Interface for Implant Bonding and Tissue Repair
SCHOOL:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ADVISOR NAME:
Paula Hammond
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

This invention is a material based structured bioactive interface that enables a new generation of biomedical implants to directly interact with the human body for long-term functionality. The interface is easily tunable and biologically programmable with broad applicability giving rise to new therapeutic options and cures for debilitating diseases, thus increasing patient survival and improving their quality of life.

2013 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Third

Isaac Kinde
Isaac Kinde
ENTRY NAME:
The PapGene Test: Early Detection of Ovarian and Endometrial Cancers
SCHOOL:
Johns Hopkins University

ADVISOR NAME:
Bert Vogelstein
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The PapGene test is a DNA sequence-based invention for the early detection of ovarian and endometrial cancers. Its underlying technology is scalable and generalizable to the early detection of many other types of cancer as well.

2013 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate First Prize

Aaron Chang
Aaron Chang
Kevin George
Kevin George
Piyush Poddar
Piyush Poddar
Sandya Subramanian
Sandya Subramanian
ENTRY NAME:
The PrestoPatch
SCHOOL:
Johns Hopkins University

ADVISOR NAME:
Robert Allen
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The PrestoPatch Integrated Electrode System allays the two major shortcomings of cardiac arrhythmia treatment: 1) Difficulty in switching the shocking vector (path the shock takes through the body) between shocks and 2) Difficulty in applying standardized external pressure to the patches to reduce transthoracic impedance (resistance to the electrical shock). The PrestoPatch system saves lives by solving these problems via two separate components: 1) The Tri-Patch, a disposable three-patch electrode that allows for a instantaneously switchable shocking vector 2) The PrestoPush, an ergonomic, hand-held pressure applicator that can quickly reduce transthoracic impedance on all electrode patches.

2013 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Second Prize

Nikhil Mehandru
Nikhil Mehandru
Aaron Perez
Aaron Perez
Brandon Sim
Brandon Sim
Alydaar Rangwala
Alydaar Rangwala
ENTRY NAME:
ChemoPatch
SCHOOL:
Harvard University

ADVISOR NAME:
Sujata Bhatia
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The ChemoPatch is a low-cost, electronic patch-based system that facilitates home-based chemotherapy which has not been extensively implemented because of the need for reformulated drugs and the inability to deliver complex treatment regimens. The ChemoPatch solves this problem through the automated delivery of soluble medication and will allow high-quality home-based cancer care to become a reality.

2013 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Third Prize

Scott Ho
Scott Ho
Jessica Kuhlman
Jessica Kuhlman
Andy Thompson
Andy Thompson
ENTRY NAME:
Mechanical Leech
SCHOOL:
University of Utah

ADVISOR NAME:
Jayant Agarwal
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The Mechanical Leech is a medical device that will replace biological leeches in post-surgical treatment of tissue reattachment patients; alleviating venous congestion. The device will greatly improve controllability, patient appeal, and convenience while lessening the costs associated with live leeches.

2012 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate First Prize

Inanc Ortac
Inanc Ortac
ENTRY NAME:
SHELS: Synthetic Hollow Enzyme Loaded Shells
SCHOOL:
University of California,
San Diego

ADVISOR NAME:
Sadik Esener
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Synthetic Hollow Enzyme Loaded Shells offer a versatile therapeutic strategy based on hiding and protecting otherwise immunogenic non-human enzymes from the immune system and their delivery to the target. This simple yet effective approach can potentially be applied to the majority of cancers including blood cancers, solid tumors, and metastatic lesions with application-specific modifications.

2012 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Second Prize

Brett Walker
Brett Walker
ENTRY NAME:
Reactive Silver Inks
SCHOOL:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ADVISOR NAME:
Jennifer Lewis
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Silver-based inks are the heart of the printed electronics industry but they are difficult and expensive to manufacture. "Reactive silver inks are particle-free, can be patterned through fine nozzles, and are extremely simple to make resulting in high yields and increased performance for lower cost.

2012 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Third Prize

Tamer Badawy
Tamer Badawy
ENTRY NAME:
Autonomous Operation of Internal Combustion Engines on a Multitude of Fuels
SCHOOL:
Wayne State University

ADVISOR NAME:
Naeim Henein
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

This invention enables electronically controlled internal combustion engines to operate effectively on fuels of different physical and chemical properties. The state of the art technology autonomously readjusts engine systems based on a combustion sensor to achieve goals in power, fuel economy, and reduced emission.

2012 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate First Prize

Leslie Myint
Leslie Myint
Daniel Peng
Daniel Peng
Andy Tu
Andy Tu
Stephen Van Kooten
Stephen Van Kooten
ENTRY NAME:
FastStitch
SCHOOL:
Johns Hopkins University

ADVISOR NAME:
Robert Allen
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The FastStitch is a plier-like device that can drive and transfer a needle across its jaw, intended to provide improved fascia closure during abdominal surgery. With this device, surgeons will be able to close fascia more easily, safely, and consistently.

2012 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Second Prize

Eric Ronning
Eric Ronning
ENTRY NAME:
ReHand
SCHOOL:
University of Wisconsin

ADVISOR NAME:
T.R. Mackie
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The ReHand uses CT scanning and 3D printing technologies to replicate an amputee's lost hand. Through a number of inventions, the prosthetic is not just innovative aesthetically, but innovative functionally and financially as well.

2012 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Third Prize

Riley Csernica
Riley Csernica
Meredith Donaldson
Meredith Donaldson
Chelsea Ex-Lubeskie
Chelsea Ex-Lubeskie
Kaitlin Grove
Kaitlin Grove
ENTRY NAME:
Hi-Impact Shoulder Stabilization Brace
SCHOOL:
Clemson University

ADVISOR NAME:
John DesJardins
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The Hi-Impact Shoulder Stabilization Brace is a self-applicable, low-profile brace designed for athletes who have experienced an anterior shoulder dislocation. The brace provides compressive support to the glenohumeral joint during activity to aid in prevention of secondary dislocations while still allowing athletes to perform at a high level."

2011 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate First Prize

Kyle Allison
Kyle Allison
ENTRY NAME:
Metabolite-Mediated Elimination of Bacterial Persisters
SCHOOL:
Boston University

ADVISOR NAME:
James J. Collins
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

This invention is a combination therapy utilizing specific metabolites and the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics to effectively kill persistent bacteria.

2011 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Second Prize

Julio D'Arcy
Julio D'Arcy
ENTRY NAME:
A Universal Coating Solution to Thin-Film Deposition
SCHOOL:
University of California,
Los Angeles

ADVISOR NAME:
Richard Kaner
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

A thin-film is a flat, conducting, and transparent architecture that is essential to the fabrication of electronic devices such as solar cells, transistors, and sensors. This invention is a universal and green solution to thin-film deposition that leads to high quality and large scale continuous coatings of organic and inorganic electronic materials in a matter of seconds.

2011 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Third Prize

Albert Mach
Albert Mach
ENTRY NAME:
Isolation of Rare Cancer Cells
SCHOOL:
University of California,
Los Angeles

ADVISOR NAME:
Dino Di Carlo
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The Centrifuge Chip uses cutting-edge microfluidic technology that can perform all of the operations attributed to a benchtop centrifuge, including high-throughput cell concentration, size-based cell sorting and solution exchange. This centrifuge-analogue technology offers an automated and rapid solution for the isolation of viable circulating tumor cells from peripheral human blood, which may be clinically useful as a blood-based biopsy test.

2011 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate First Prize

Elizabeth Asai
Elizabeth Asai
Nickolas Demas
Nickolas Demas
Elliot Swart
Elliot Swart
ENTRY NAME:
3Derm
SCHOOL:
Yale University

ADVISOR NAME:
Vince Wilcyznski
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

This invention is a handheld imaging device for taking 3-D, high-definition images of skin lesions or other abnormalities in the clinic or at home and, through a proprietary web interface, allows doctors to remotely access the images for more efficient patient care.

2011 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Second Prize

Patrick Cassidy
Patrick Cassidy
Sean Heyrman
Sean Heyrman
Alexander Johnson
Alexander Johnson
Anthony Sprangers
Anthony Sprangers
ENTRY NAME:
BarrierASAP
SCHOOL:
University of Wisconsin at Madison

ADVISOR NAME:
John Puccinelli
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Ablation is an increasingly common way to treat cancerous lesions; however, it frequently requires a spacer to protect surrounding healthy tissue in an operation called hydrodissection. To prevent this spacer from flowing away during the procedure, this team developed a thermoreversible fluid that is injected as a liquid and forms a solid gel at body temperature, providing stable protection to healthy tissue.

2011 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Third Prize

James Lee
James Lee
Colin Mitchell
Colin Mitchell
Meghan Moore
Meghan Moore
Lauren Riesenberg
Lauren Riesenberg
ENTRY NAME:
Blinx
SCHOOL:
University of Cincinnati

ADVISOR NAME:
Mary Beth Privitera
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The BLINX device applies topical electrical stimulation to the muscle around the eyes, inducing a normal blink to maintain hydration of the eyes. BLINX will be used to prevent corneal damage in pediatric patients in intensive care.

2010 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate First Prize

Alice Chen
Alice Chen
ENTRY NAME:
Humanized Mouse via Tissue-Engineered Liver Mimetics for Drug Development
SCHOOL:
Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ADVISOR NAME:
Sangeeta Bhatia
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Harvard-MIT Student Invents Humanized Mouse for Drug Development

By Marlene Taylor

Alice Chen has built a better mouse.

Since she was a girl, all things living fascinated her - from plants to pets. In science classes, she marveled at tiny pumping hearts, bean-sized kidneys, and seemingly never-ending strings of intestine. She wanted to be a doctor, or so she thought.

But Chen had other interests as well. The engineers in her family imbued her with an appreciation for tools - designing and building the right instrument for each job. When she entered college a new field - bioengineering - had just emerged that would allow her to combine her favorite interests.

"To me that was just the perfect blend of what I grew up wanting to do and [how] I saw myself contributing to the world," she says.

Chen is enrolled in the Health Sciences and Technology doctoral program administered jointly by Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Now, after six years of graduate research, the 29-year-old biomedical and tissue engineer is the principal inventor of a "humanized" mouse that can harbor human liver cells in its body.

To a young person, Chen would explain her work by saying, "I give mice human parts so that new drugs can be tested on mice before they are tested on people like you and me." To the rest of us she simply says she"s a tissue engineer. The cells she implants in mice react to drugs as they would in humans, enabling researchers to determine if a drug is safe for human patients.

Chen designed an encapsulating device made of a watery substance that solidifies into the shape, size and consistency of a soft contact lens. Embedded with human liver cells, the device is implanted into a mouse's abdomen. It is engineered in such a way as to maintain human liver cell functions, recruit blood vessels from the mouse's vascular system and integrate with the mouse's circulation. The encapsulating process protects the liver cells from the mouse's natural immune defenses.

"Liver cells are really hard to culture in lab settings," says Chen. "Once they are extracted from the body they rapidly die."

The liver is the body's first line of defense against toxic substances and takes the brunt of unsafe drugs. Pharmaceutical companies spend upwards of $1 billion and 10 years to get one drug on the market. After undergoing years of animal trials and initiating human trials, close to 90 percent of drugs fail.

A mouse with human cells to test drugs allows researchers to know early on if a drug is damaging to the liver. Pharmaceutical researchers can then halt drug development before unsafe drugs get into the hands - and livers - of patients. This saves years in time, millions of dollars, and human lives.

Laboratory mice aren't cheap. To do the kinds of studies where cells are implanted in mice, they must be immune-deficient. Maintaining these mice is extremely laborious, time-consuming and costly. Chen can use a normal laboratory mouse as a host for her device.

Chen's humanized mouse clears the path for other kinds of liver research, such as treatments for diseases of the liver.

Cell culture models in the laboratory are useful for early detection of liver damage from drugs, but they cannot provide information about whole body responses the way animals can. Chen's mouse makes that possible.

2010 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Second Prize

Erez Lieberman-Aiden
Erez Lieberman-Aiden
Nynke L. Van Berkum
Nynke L. Van Berkum
ENTRY NAME:
Hi-C: Method for Genome Sequencing in Three Dimensions
SCHOOL:
Harvard/MIT,
University of Massachusetts Medical School

ADVISOR NAME:
Eric Lander, Job Dekker
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

By Jennifer Welsh

Plastic balls, plaid, Ramen noodles, and Romeo and Juliet. Erez Lieberman-Aiden sees the genome very differently than the rest of the world.

He gained this view while working on an immunology-based project. He started wondering if the genome folding that creates antibodies might be occurring elsewhere, and if these interactions might affect gene expression.

"There are some big gaps in our understanding," said Lieberman-Aiden, currently a research fellow at Harvard University. "Between the scale of about 100 bases and about 100 million bases we have a very limited knowledge of how it is the genome is folded."

The genome is essentially a polymer - a long string of repeated bases. At the base pair level two strings of bases wind into a double helix, which folds around structural proteins. We also know how chromosomes, huge chunks of hundreds of millions of base pairs that make up our genome, are arranged, but the levels between are a scientific grey area.

Figuring out genomic interactions across these distances could explain how the genome can create such a wide variety of cells in our body. "It has something to do with the regulation of this information - how it is accessed - what is turned on, what is turned off." said Lieberman-Aiden. "Our work has actually shown that that [regulation] is intimately related to how the genome is folded."

To understand this folding, Lieberman-Aiden and his teammate, Nynke van Berkum, approached the genome as if it were the text of Romeo and Juliet written out one letter at a time on a huge noodle. If you swirl that noodle in a bowl, like chromosomes in a nucleus, many different sections come into close contact.

To identify these touching sections, they froze the strand (be it noodle or genome) where it was, shattered it, glued it back together and then "read" all of the pieces, looking for the out-of-order sections. For example you might see a strand where "Two households, both alike in dignity" connected with "and Juliet is the sun!" instead of, "In fair Verona, where we lay our scene." This would mean those two sections were interacting across long stretches, because they were out of place when reconnected.

When the researchers analyzed which sequences within a chromosome were interacting, they could see they formed plaid-like patterns of compartments. The red compartments had more interactions and more activity, while the blue compartments had fewer interactions and few markers of activity.

This interaction data showed something interesting; at the million-base level the data didn"t fit accepted polymer folding models. The traditional theory, a tangled mess called the equilibrium globule, just wasn"t possible. The team found that a structure called the fractal globule, which had never been observed before, fit their data better. It's just as dense as the equilibrium globule, but unknotted for easy access.

Future work includes studying even smaller regions of interaction within the genome. They are also hoping to study different cells during differentiation to see how the genome changes conformation.

2010 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Third Prize

Tzahi  Cohen-Karni
Tzahi Cohen-Karni
Bozhi Tian
Bozhi Tian
ENTRY NAME:
Three Dimensional, Flexible Nanoscale Field Effect Transistors as Intracellular Probes
SCHOOL:
Harvard University

ADVISOR NAME:
Charles Lieber
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Probing the Singularity
Melding man and machine at the nano-scale
by John Motsinger

Bozhi and Tzahi. Their names alone conjure up images of twins in a circus act, but the two men are up to something even more bizarre. They work in a world of microscopic mystery, at the interstices of the digital and the biological, where the human ends and the machine begins.

Bozhi Tian moved from Shanghai six years ago to study chemistry and materials science; Tzahi Cohen-Karni moved from Israel five years ago to study applied physics and engineering. In a Harvard University nanotechnology research laboratory, the pair has developed impossibly small semiconductor probes that can record detailed electrical activity from within a single cell.

The current standard for making cellular recordings relies on a relatively blunt needle that sucks to the cell membrane to listen in from the outside. The glass needle, known as a microelectrode or patch clamp, contains an ionic solution that responds to changes in the cell's internal electrical signaling as membrane channels open and close.

In contrast, the tip of Tian and Cohen-Karni's nanowire device is one hundredth the diameter of a microelectrode and coated with a layer of lipids, which allows it to slip inside the cell membrane to record electrical signals more directly. Using a transistor that’s built into the silicon nanowire, the device can register changes in electrical potential as small as just a few millivolts, all without disturbing the normal response of the cell.

For Tian, the challenge was synthesizing silicon nanowires bent at just the right angle to enter cells easily while still forming a complete electrical circuit. By carefully controlling the temperature and pressure of precursor gases inside a glass tube furnace, Tian was able to reliably produce successive 120-degree kinks during the nanowire growth process. Changes in the flow rates of different gases, called dopants, gave rise to internal conductance changes that produce a tiny functional region at the probe tip. It's this section, the "field effect transistor," that’s capable of measuring changes in electrical potential in the surrounding environment.

To record from living tissue, however, Cohen-Karni had to devise a new method of positioning the probe into target cells. Though each nanowire probe is tiny, with hundreds of probes forming contacts in an area half the size of your pinky nail, the overall device is part of an integrated circuit that is relatively large. So Cohen-Karni came up with a way to invert a cultured substrate of cardiac cells and position the complex on top of the probe device using a micro-manipulator. That way the bigger device chip remains fixed while the smaller cell substrate is free to move in all three dimensions.

The innovation has already paved the way for designing cyborg cells from silicon wafers that can track the contractions of individual muscle cells. What lies beyond is implanting neural chips and nano-scale pacemakers into the brain and heart - the seamless fusion of the body's own circuity with manufactured hardware.

2010 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate First Prize

Mark Jensen
Mark Jensen
ENTRY NAME:
Continuous Fabrication of Composite Lattice Pole Structures
SCHOOL:
Brigham Young University

ADVISOR NAME:
David Jensen
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Inventing a Legacy
By Joe Giesy

Since he was a child, the gears inside Mark Jensen's head have been constantly rotating.

"It was really clear he had an engineering mind," his father, David Jensen, said of his son who skipped eighth grade and had an associate's degree before graduating high school.

As an adult, Mark Jensen is using that engineering mind to work with a completely different set of gears.

About 15 years ago, his father invented a lightweight, composite lattice pole structure called IsoTruss and, more recently, Mark Jensen invented a machine to braid and weave fibers into this structure that could potentially take the place of steel and wooden beams.

Mark Jensen said IsoTruss could also be used in the production of motor vehicles and airplanes as a cheaper, greener solution to current models because the design of the composites makes it lightweight and more fuel-efficient.

"It's going to be lighter weight, it's going to be stronger [and] the carbon footprint is going to be smaller," Jensen said. "A lot of people try to pitch 'green' or whatever, but the product really is truly greener than a lot of things we use now."

Along with Aaron Howcraft, co-creator of the machine, Mark Jensen has founded Altus Poles LLC and won many business competitions already. They partnered with a company called Novatek to maintain a home for their company and help buy machining supplies cheaper.

David Jensen, a professor at Brigham Young University, designed the IsoTruss structure when Mark Jensen was a child and now acts as an adviser for him in some of the business and invention competitions he entered before graduating from BYU last April.

"As his adviser, he's the perfect student to work with because he's responsible, he's creative, he's smart and he gets things done," David Jensen said. "As his father, I'm very proud, and I'm very excited for what he's doing with the IsoTruss, which is something I've devoted a lot of my life to."

A deal between Altus Poles, BYU and Novatek allowed David Jensen to become a consultant for his son's work. He said he enjoys working side-by-side with him and is proud he is the one who will make IsoTruss commercially available after years of frustration trying this same feat himself.

The machine is made up of a series of gears that rotate bobbins around an axis and switches that allow the bobbins to move from gear to gear, braiding them into the composite material that makes up the structure. The whole system is run by computer software Mark Jensen helped to develop.

Howcraft said Mark Jensen's focus was always to make the business successful and they have both taken big risks to get the machine running and their company off the ground.
David Jensen said he is nervous for his son because he has seen companies fail, but he has high confidence in his son.

"When he says 'I can do this,' I know he'll learn how to do it and do it right," he said.

2010 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Second Prize

Devon Anderson
Devon Anderson
Jonathan Guerrette
Jonathan Guerrette
Nathan Niparko
Nathan Niparko
ENTRY NAME:
Absorbent, Bioresorbable Surgical Sponge
SCHOOL:
Dartmouth College

ADVISOR NAME:
Douglas Van Citters
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Left Behind After Surgery
Researchers work to produce a surgical sponge that the body can absorb
By Charli Kerns

No patient enjoys waking from a surgery only to realize something was left behind. Likewise, no doctor takes pleasure in reopening the patient to retrieve that missing something. These fears are not unfounded. Surgical sponges - cotton sponges that absorb liquids from a surgical site - have a lengthy history of ending up on the wrong side of the stitches, with an average 5,000 cases a year. Doctors have even developed a special term for it called gossypiboma.

Doctors use several techniques to avoid gossypiboma, which include having one individual solely for counting the equipment before and after surgery. Some manufacturers embed a strip of radio-opaque material into the sponge, which can pinpoint the sponge's location. However, even though these techniques often work, the potential problem remains. The sponge is still inside the body.

Researchers Devon Anderson, Jonathan Guerrette, and Nathan Niparko from Dartmouth University are working on a solution to the forgotten sponge problem. Since the fall of 2009, the team has been trying to produce a bioabsorbable sponge, one that the body can absorb over a short period of time.

The sponge is a product formed by mixing cellulose and alginate, both of which are oxidized, a process that transforms the chemical fabrics into bioabsorbable material. Cellulose helps form the walls of most plant and animal cells, while alginate is a biomaterial derived from seaweed.

Both cellulose and alginate are already used commercially in the hospital, the former as a hemostat for blood and the latter as a dressing for wounds. Together, they have the features necessary to create the biodegradable sponge.

"We're trying to find the right percentages, ratios, and viscosity to produce the desired results," said Anderson, biomedical researcher at Thayer College of Engineering at Dartmouth. The sponge is essentially a medical souffle. Every measurement must be just right or the end product becomes nothing more than thin white paste, which Jonathan, Dartmouth graduate student in chemical engineering, said was all they got at the beginning.

"We've come a long way since our first trial runs," said Guerrette, who works on the chemistry compositions for the research. After finding the right recipe, the team mixes the ingredients by electrospinning. Put simply, the components are spit out of a needle at a very fast rate onto aluminum foil hanging 17 centimeters away, leaving the solvent behind.

"It was incredibly exciting for us when we saw the first results of the electrospinning, and there were actually fibers on the aluminum that would peel off," said Nathan, the logistics member of the team.

The team will soon move on to work with animal model testing and see how the sponge will react to flesh. Though a commercial application may be far off, the group is starting to see the light at the end. Devon said, "To walk through the process and find a product we"re really happy with is exciting."

2010 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Third Prize

Leyla Isik
Leyla Isik
Salina Khushal
Salina Khushal
Michael Shen
Michael Shen
Emilie Yeh
Emilie Yeh
ENTRY NAME:
Intelligent Surgical Drill for Improved Orthopedic Surgery
SCHOOL:
Johns Hopkins University

ADVISOR NAME:
Robert Allen
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Designing a Smarter Surgical Drill
By Matt Dozier

"Aim for my finger."

The drill whined, its five-inch stainless steel bit penetrating bone and flesh at 1,500 rpm. Dr. Lew Schon watched as a surgical resident guided the tool through the patient"s ankle in the direction of his waiting index digit. Easing forward, the young doctor bored into the fibula, then tibia. Suddenly, the drill hit a weaker patch of bone and surged ahead, plunging toward Dr. Schon"s finger. He jerked his hand away, barely escaping serious injury.

Dr. Schon, a 20-year veteran of orthopedic surgery, wondered if there was a better way to teach novice surgeons in the operating room, so he brought his dilemma to Dr. Robert Allen's Biomedical Design Team class at Johns Hopkins University.

Biomedical engineering students Leyla Isik, Emilie Yeh, Michael Shen and Salina Khushal dove into the project, spending summer 2009 planning and brainstorming ideas for a device that could make orthopedic surgery safer and decrease the training time for new surgeons. Their solution: an "intelligent" drill that could provide better feedback to someone learning the art of surgical drilling.

The field of orthopedics, which includes skeleton- and muscle-related maladies ranging from broken legs to torn ligaments, often involves drilling to stabilize and repair damaged bones. Compared to brain or heart surgery, which take a stable environment and a steady hand (think "Operation"), orthopedic surgery is much more dynamic: limbs need to be repositioned, joints flexed, appendages rotated to find the best angle (think "Twister"). It"s a procedure that relies more on experience and intuition than technology, requiring surgeons to complete six long years of residency training.

"Orthopedic surgery is still quite low-tech," said Isik, leader of the design team. "Right now, the training is really a trial-and-error process."

In the fall, the Johns Hopkins team, now 10 members in total, started building prototypes of their invention - some more successful than others. "We"re not the most skilled electrical engineers," Yeh admitted. "There were a couple of fires, and lots of smoke." Team members worked on the project for the rest of the year, testing their designs and getting feedback from residents at Union Memorial Hospital, where Dr. Schon, one of the team's sponsors, practices medicine.

By spring 2010, their perseverance had paid off. Their invention, a small box that can clip to the back of any standard surgical drill, uses lights to tell a surgeon if the drill veers off its intended course. It can also trigger an alarm or even shut off the power if the drill speeds up too quickly, making it a tremendous learning tool in terms of visual feedback and safety.

Isik said she hopes the device, currently undergoing further development by Bioactive Surgical, will be able to gain support as a training tool in a surgical community that is notoriously suspicious of technology, based on its small size and relatively low cost - estimated at $3,000, compared to $10,000 camera-tracking systems.

"We would love to see it in the O.R.," she said. "This whole experience has been amazing."

2009 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Category

Geoffrey Von Maltzahn
Geoffrey Von Maltzahn
ENTRY NAME:
Nanoparticles that Communicate to Amplify Drug and Imaging Agent Targeting to Disease
SCHOOL:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ADVISOR NAME:
Sangeeta Bhatia
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Geoffrey von Maltzahn turns what may be a new page in nanomedicine with his method of using a pair of nanoparticles that work together in an innovative way to increase the effectiveness and lower the side effects of existing cancer drugs. In his approach, one set of nanoparticles lodges in tumors and generates numerous targets for a second set of nanoparticles that deliver anti-cancer drugs. This process of signal amplification differs from traditional combination therapies and may make it possible to target such drugs much more directly than currently possible, potentially allowing higher doses to reach tumors while sparing healthy cells.

Powerful cancer-killing drugs are well-known to science and widely used in clinical medicine, but since these drugs are also highly toxic to healthy cells, targeting drugs specifically to tumors has been a major focus in cancer research. Of late, much of this drug-targeting research has looked at using nanoparticles to carry the drugs to tumors. A major challenge, however, is that cancer cells, and the tumors they may form, have finite numbers of targets to which nanoparticles can attach - and since a given nanoparticle can carry only a small drug payload, this limits the amount of drug that can be delivered.

Tumors have a high demand for nutrients and oxygen, and as a result have many blood vessels supplying them. Von Maltzahn"s first nanoparticle targets the tumor blood vessels and in doing so, causes local bleeding. The bleeding prompts the body to turn on clotting factors in the area. Then, the second nanoparticle comes in, programmed to be attracted to the activated clotting factors, and delivers a cancer drug. Since the body responds to an even small amount of bleeding with a flood of clotting factors, this process dramatically increases the number of targets for the drug-carrying particles. In essence, the first nanoparticles find the tumors and then recruit the second nanoparticles from circulation by harnessing a natural chain reaction.

Von Maltzahn has compelling data demonstrating efficacy in mouse experiments, and hopes to continue refining his approach to make it particularly effective in delivering drugs to patients with highly metastatic cancers, and other diseases.

Raised first in Arlington, Texas and then Fairfax, Virginia, Von Maltzahn, 29, received degrees from both MIT and the University of California, San Diego before beginning his current work on a Ph.D. in medical engineering and physics. He was influenced when he was young by his interest in art and his observations of the natural world around him. He says, "It was a fun process of observation, interpretation, and creation. Today, I use many of the same processes in the medium of biologically-inspired engineering."

2009 Graduate WINNERS

Grand Prize

Harris Wang
Harris Wang
ENTRY NAME:
Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering (MAGE) for Renewable Chemicals, Fuels, and Therapeutics
SCHOOL:
Harvard Medical School

ADVISOR NAME:
George Church and Farren Isaacs
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Harris Wang was a student in the lab of George Church, a researcher well-known in the world of genetic sequencing for his attempts to make genetic sequencing faster and cheaper. Church was long interested in creating faster tools for cell programming, and discovered that Wang was willing to take on the challenge. Wang knew that cell programming was still a slow and hands-on process. So he developed a protocol designed to permit faster cell programming, and then put together hardware and software to automate it. He calls the approach MAGE: Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering.

To demonstrate, Wang engineered a strain of E. coli bacterium that produces lycopene - a red-colored antioxidant, abundant in tomatoes and that may be linked to reduced rates of prostate cancer. Wang added the genetic recipe for lycopene to the bacterium's chromosome. Then he used his MAGE approach to evolve a strain of the bacteria in which production of lycopene was highly efficient. In a more traditional approach, researchers painstakingly isolate, snip apart, reassemble, and reinsert individual genes.

Wang, on the other hand, quickly produced billions of mutations - far more than he would have had time to create by hand. Wang believes that his technology will allow bioengineers to produce customized microorganisms much more cheaply and quickly than possible before. Such engineered microorganisms might be used to produce a wide variety of useful compounds, such as antibiotics, biofuels, and chemotherapy drugs.

Wang, 26, is currently working towards his doctorate in biophysics. Born in Beijing, Wang moved with his family to the U.S. at age nine and grew up in Salt Lake City. He remembers as a child when his aunt made him write out thousands of Chinese calligraphy characters. If he thought about writing a thousand characters, it was daunting, but if he thought about writing characters in sets of ten, then it wasn"t. He says, "Science is often this way, too. We may look at a big scientific challenge and get intimidated by the size, scale, and scope, but if we boil it down into smaller components, then we can make progress in a reasonable manner."

2009 Undergraduate WINNERS

Grand Prize

Stephen Diebold
Stephen Diebold
ENTRY NAME:
The Drop Point
SCHOOL:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ADVISOR NAME:
Deana McDonagh
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Stephen Diebold presents an improved pointing stick for use by people with quadriplegia and other disabilities that prevent them from using their arms. Pointing sticks are used to type, operate cell phones, and otherwise manipulate objects. Existing pointing sticks are gripped in the user's teeth or mounted, helmet-like, on the user's head. Either approach presents problems: a mouth-held pointer prevents the user from speaking and a head-mounted pointer requires assistance to put on or take off.

Diebold's pointing stick is designed to be donned and doffed with a shrug of the user's chin. He came up with the approach after spending time with then law-student Jonathan Ko, who has quadriplegia. Diebold said, "I saw that to Jonathan, the pointing stick was his arms and hands, and he had to ask somebody every time he wanted to use his hands - that seemed absurd to me." By attaching the pointing stick to a cup which is in turn attached to a strap that loops around the user"s neck, the user is able to freely engage the pointer as he wishes.

A native of the Chicago suburb Rolling Meadows and a graduate of William Fremd High School, Diebold, 21, is now majoring in industrial design. He finds himself drawn to the field for its blend of research and art, since products must not just be functional but also able to instill enjoyment and pride in the user. Upon his graduation, if Diebold doesn"t find himself a part of the industrial design field, he will be pursuing computer animation to focus on rendering products or architecture interiors. For the moment, he"s proud of the fact that he has a U.S. patent pending for his design of The Drop Point.

2009 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Category

Lindsay Holiday
Lindsay Holiday
Dana Leland
Dana Leland
Philip Wagner
Philip Wagner
ENTRY NAME:
Household Electrocoagulation Arsenic Filter
SCHOOL:
Dartmouth College

ADVISOR NAME:
Douglas Van Citters
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

As part of a capstone design course for Dartmouth's engineering program, Phil Wagner, Lindsay Holiday, and Dana Leland tackled a problem: to reduce arsenic found in groundwater to safe levels, with a cheap, reliable device made of materials locally available in rural Nepal.

Arsenic naturally leaches out of the rock underlying much of Nepal, so the groundwater there typically contains up to 200 parts per billion (ppb) of arsenic. The World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water call for no more than 10 ppb arsenic, and WHO considers arsenic in drinking water an "urgent problem" in Nepal and neighboring areas.

The team developed a way of using electrocoagulation - a process employed in the large-scale water treatment plants of many modern cities - in a system radically downsized to fit into three five-gallon buckets. Water to be treated goes into the first bucket where the students induce electrocoagulation by sending a simple electric current through two steel plates in the water. Iron precipitates are released. These iron particles bond aggressively with the arsenic that exists in the water. This newly-reacted water is then poured into a second bucket of clean sand, which has a hole in the bottom and sits over a third empty bucket. The sand collects the iron-arsenic particles and arsenic-free water collects in the bottom bucket. When the team tested the device with water contaminated with 200 ppb arsenic, the output water contained under 1ppb arsenic - well under the 10 ppb level considered safe for drinking.

Wagner, 22, who grew up in Fogelsville, Pennsylvania and graduated in Spring 2009 with his engineering degree, is currently spending a year teaching high school in the Marshall Islands. Upon his return to the U.S., Wagner plans to continue graduate studies in engineering. As he says, "Engineering balances both a science aspect and a human aspect, which makes it endlessly interesting."

Holiday, 24, spent time growing up in both Teec Nos Pos, Arizona in the Navajo Nation and Phoenix. As a recent environmental engineering graduate, she looks forward to her immediate work with the Energy Efficiency Division of Southern California Edison. Looking forward several years into the future, Holiday says, "I would like to own a business on the Navajo Nation and encourage building sustainable communities."

Also a recent environmental engineering graduate and a Baltimore native, Leland, 22, is now a project manager at Eaton Corporation in Wisconsin, participating in a fast-track leadership program. Leland found work on the capstone engineering project very rewarding, commenting, "I hope our work can help bring clean drinking water to people in need in third world nations such as Nepal, Bangladesh, and Cambodia."

2008 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Category

Paul Podsiadlo
Paul Podsiadlo
ENTRY NAME:
Ultra-strong and Stiff, Optically Transparent Plastic Nanocomposites
SCHOOL:
University of Michigan

ADVISOR NAME:
Nicholas Kotov
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

When Paul Podsiadlo looks at natural materials such as seashells, bones, or teeth, he sees amazing structures. He notes how these seemingly simple yet microscopically quite complex structures have evolved over millions of years into some of the toughest composites, and as he looks at them, he tries to understand their structure and how they function with the hope of mimicking their properties for the development of the next generation of advanced materials. It is this same thoughtful approach to all problems in his research that encourages Podsiadlo and that makes his research exciting for him.

For his University of Michigan research, Podsiadlo knew he wanted to create high performance materials by using nanotechnology as his tool. His innovation is "plastic steel," a transparent plastic sheet that is ultra strong, with remarkable properties approaching the values of steel and its alloys. To create his composite plastic, Podsiadlo begins with nanoscale materials, actually clay nanotubes that individually are extremely strong. One of his challenges was determining how to transfer the nanoscale mechanical properties to a macroscale end product. Podsiadlo uses a layer-by-layer assembly technique to alternately deposit nanometer-thin layers of clay nanosheets and polymer, ending up with a product comprised of hundreds of layers. The structure of the final product resembles that found in the seashell: the nacre.

Podsiadlo looks forward to the broad impact his innovation could have, especially in the military, aviation, medical, and energy sectors. He envisions his structure being used for anything from body armor to biomedical coatings. In fact, research for the project was initially funded by the U.S. Defense Department and the National Institutes of Health.

Podsiadlo, 30, was born in a small village in Poland where he always enjoyed the sciences and math in school, often helping his teacher grade math exams. At 17, he came to the United States and graduated from Bridgman High School in Bridgman, Michigan in 1997. As he studied at a local community college, he found that his most interesting classes were in chemistry. In fact, he remembers an experience in the lab making a sample of common acetylsalicylic acid, also known as aspirin, as a particularly positive moment that piqued his interest in the topic. Unsure whether his English skills would allow him to succeed at a school such as the University of Michigan, Podsiadlo took a chance and applied and was thrilled when he was accepted.

In 2002, Podsiadlo received his bachelor's in chemical engineering, in 2006, he received his master's, and in 2008, he received his Ph.D. During his doctoral research in 2006, Podsiadlo was granted a five-year fellowship from the Hertz Foundation, supporting his research at Michigan. Now a U.S. citizen, Podsiadlo lives in the Chicago area with his wife Aneta, who is expecting their first child in December. Currently he is a Frank Willard Libby Postdoctoral Fellow at the Argonne National Laboratory's Center for Nanoscale Materials where he continues his research in nanotechnology. Podsiadlo admits, "I really enjoy research, every aspect of it. I can"t just go home and switch off. My wife probably knows more about carbon nanotubes and clay nanosheets than she wishes she did."

2008 Graduate WINNERS

Grand Prize

Timothy Lu
Timothy Lu
ENTRY NAME:
Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilms with Engineered Bacteriophage and Synthetic Gene Sensors
SCHOOL:
Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ADVISOR NAME:
J.J. Collins
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

While performing his clinical rotations at a large hospital, Timothy Lu, a Harvard Medical School and MIT student, was bothered by the infectious outbreaks he witnessed in many patients. The unexpected infections would cause lengthened hospital stays, additional treatment, or both, resulting in increased healthcare dollars being spent. Lu remembers, "That experience drove me to look for a solution to this problem."

Lu knew that antibiotic-resistant bacteria are usually treated with stronger and stronger antibiotics, leading to subsequent decreases in the antibiotics available for the treatment of future infections as resistance continues to evolve. He also knew that very few new classes of antibiotics have been developed within the past few decades, partly due to the large cost associated with modern drug discovery. Working in the new field of synthetic biology, Lu created engineered bacteriophages - viruses that infect bacteria - which work in conjunction with existing antibiotics to make them much more effective against bacteria.

In addition, Lu realized that bacterial biofilms are capable of causing long-term infections, not just in hospitals but also in food-processing and industrial settings. Biofilms are bacterial communities that live on surfaces and produce protective coatings to make themselves highly resistant to antimicrobial treatment. Common tactics to deal with biofilms involve physically removing and replacing infected items or using harsh chemical treatments. Instead, Lu engineered bacteriophage to produce enzymes that break down the protective coating surrounding biofilms, enabling deep penetration into biofilms and increased killing of bacterial cells.

Captivated by research, Lu is hopeful that his inventions will have a positive impact on society and health. In addition to finding success with his work, he also enjoys collaborating with others to improving patient care.

Born in Stanford, California, Lu, 27, spent his early years growing up in New York and then moved to Taiwan, where he graduated from high school. His parents continue to live in Taiwan, where his father founded and runs, along with his mother, Etron Technology, an integrated circuit design and production company. Lu recalls that when he was young, his father was involved with advancing state-of-the-art technology in the semiconductor industry as an engineer at IBM. Lu likens the emerging field of synthetic biology to the early and revolutionary days of the semiconductor industry and is inspired by the parallels he sees between the two fields.

A 2003 graduate of MIT with his bachelor's and master's degrees in electrical engineering and computer science, Lu is a student in the M.D./Ph.D. program at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. He received his Ph.D. in February 2008 and expects to receive his M.D. in 2010. As for his plans upon graduation, he says, "My heart really is in research. I"m not sure if it will be academia or industry, but I want to stay involved in research and make an impact on the world."

2008 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Category

Greg Schroll
Greg Schroll
ENTRY NAME:
Spherical Vehicle with Flywheel Momentum Storage for High Torque Capabilities
SCHOOL:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ADVISOR NAME:
Alexander Slocum
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

As a senior thesis project at MIT, Schroll explored a fascination he has had for some time with spherical vehicles. After a broad investigation into prior research on the subject, he found that previous design concepts have significant limits in their ability to overcome obstacles or inclines, and decided he would try to address these limitations. Through months of brainstorming, he conceived of a novel solution that uses gyroscopes to store and dispense angular momentum to aid in climbing hills, obstacles, and stairs.

Schroll came up with the idea partly by playing with a toy gyroscope. "I saw how gyroscopes can behave in ways that seem to defy gravity as a result of the principle of gyroscopic precession. I applied this principle to a spherical robot to allow it to also appear to defy gravity," he said.

Schroll believes that a spherical vehicle has many advantages over an ordinary ground vehicle because of its round shape. It cannot be turned upside down since every orientation is right side up, and it has no exposed points of weakness. All components are protected inside a spherical shell that could be armored and possibly sealed to give it amphibious abilities. Despite these advantages, limits in the performance of previous designs have prevented spherical vehicles from being useful for most applications, but Schroll hopes this invention will change that. He imagines his spherical robot having many potential uses including surveillance, reconnaissance, and disaster zone assessment especially in situations where conditions on the ground may not yet be safe for people. He envisions being able to air drop a fleet of sphere robots into a location and have them work together yet autonomously to gather information. He says his robot would also be appropriate for planetary exploration, as well as search and rescue since its ability to climb stairs would allow access to urban environments. Schroll says that the internal flywheel mechanism could also be useful in applications such as active stability and safety in off-road vehicles.

Presently a graduate student at Colorado State University, Schroll is furthering his research on his spherical robot and the gyroscope mechanism inside. Now 22, Schroll grew up in Chatham, New Jersey, and graduated in 2004 from Chatham High School. His family currently resides in Highlands Ranch, Colorado. Schroll graduated with his bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering from MIT in May of 2008, and he expects to graduate with his master's in Mechanical Engineering from CSU in 2010. Schroll plans to obtain a Ph.D., and hopes to continue doing advanced research in either an academic or industrial environment. Ultimately, however, he would like to work as an independent inventor and start his own think-tank company. As he says, "I have a running list of inventions-to-be," and he looks forward to having the opportunity to pursue them.

2007 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Finalist

John Dolan
John Dolan
ENTRY NAME:
The Dolognawmeter: An Instrument to Quantify Pain Induced Oral Dysfunction
SCHOOL:
University of California,
San Francisco

ADVISOR NAME:
Brian Schmidt
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

John Dolan investigates the molecular mechanisms responsible for oral and facial pain. Dolan observes, "While in dental school I attended to patients with untreatable pain from disorders such as oral cancer." He realized that the most substantial obstacle to improved pain medication was the inability to measure oral and facial pain in experimental animals. Without an instrument to measure oral or facial pain in animals, it was impossible to test the efficacy of experimental painkillers. Dolan notes, "Diseases such as oral cancer or temporomandibular joint disorders are excruciatingly painful when patients chew or open their mouths. Therefore, the pain research community needs an instrument that measures pain in animals during the same behaviors that are producing pain in patients."

Dolan realized that gnawing in rodents uses the same muscles, joints, nerves and soft tissues of the oral cavity and face that are required for almost all oral functions in humans. He then created a device that could measure gnawing function in animals by taking advantage of an instinct observed in rodents. If a mouse is placed in a narrow tube with an obstacle at the end, it will instinctively gnaw at the obstacle to escape. Dolan"s device exploits this instinct. The device, termed a Dolognawmeter, (dolor, Latin for pain; gnawmeter referring to measurement of gnawing) automatically records the time required for a mouse to gnaw through a series of dowels obstructing exit from a tube. Upon severing the dowels, the mouse escapes from the tube. Slower gnawing indexes greater pain, providing Dolan with a way to study the effectiveness of painkillers.

The apparatus is inexpensive, compact and simple; multiple Dolognawmeters can be used in parallel to simultaneously evaluate many mice. Since mice are nocturnal, the device is employed inside a standard research cage at night since no operator observation is required. Dolan says the device has the potential to revolutionize the way that both analgesics and anxiolytics (anti-anxiety drugs) are tested. "Since confinement anxiety motivates the mouse to gnaw, a Dolognawmeter will also allow for a simple, cheap and objective method to test new anxiolytics in animals. That alone makes the device worth its weight in gold," says Dolan.

Dolan began his education in anthropology, earning a B.S. from Montana State University and an M.A. from the University of California, Berkeley. While working toward his Ph.D. in anthropology he was inspired by studies demonstrating that a person's creativity often peaks by the late twenties or early thirties. Upon learning this, he put aside his graduate work, purchased a used Tungsten Inert Gas welder from an Oakland shipyard and became an artist for five years. He says, "My greatest skill since childhood has been artistic mechanical design." In 2003 he combined his passion for material sciences and the application of mechanical principles to human problems and entered dental school. At the same time, he began research into the mechanisms of oral and facial pain. He earned his DDS in 2007 and is currently in a postgraduate program in oral and craniofacial sciences at UCSF.

2007 Graduate WINNERS

Grand Prize

Ian Cheong
Ian Cheong
ENTRY NAME:
Liposomase for Generalizable Drug Delivery
SCHOOL:
Johns Hopkins University

ADVISOR NAME:
Bert Vogelstein
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Ian Cheong didn't start out in a scientific career. The Singapore native trained to become a lawyer in his home country, and ended up working at a law firm specializing in corporate criminal litigation. Some of the firm's clients were scientists, and as Cheong says, "Science looked like it was too much fun to be left to the scientists." With that, he left the world of law behind and began his scientific studies.

Once at Johns Hopkins, Cheong focused on a main problem in cancer therapy; namely, drugs used in cancer treatment kill the healthy cells as well as the cancer cells. Many cancer drugs are potent, but they are nonspecific, and there is continuous searching for ways to make the drugs more specific.

Cheong has devised a way to target cancerous tumors and release the drugs just in those areas. He begins by injecting bacterial spores into the subject which selectively inhabit the oxygen-poor areas found within cancerous tumors. Next, Cheong puts the cancer-fighting drug in lipid particles and injects these liposomes into the subject. Because the germinated bacterial spores also secrete a protein that makes liposomes fall apart, when the drug-containing liposomes are in the proximity of the tumors, the drug is released only in those specific areas.

In testing conducted on mice, Cheong was astonished at the results. One hundred percent of the mice showed regression of the tumors. In fact, Cheong recalls that the moment when he realized that the mice tumors were being eradicated as a high point of his research. He hopes his work will have a positive impact in the treatment and diagnosis of cancer.

Cheong, 33, arrived in the U.S. in September 2001 to begin his studies. He received his Ph.D. in cell and molecular medicine from Johns Hopkins in 2006. Currently, he is working on postdoctoral research at JHU, and he hopes to remain in academia while focusing on research that industry would normally classify as high risk ideas. He says, "These are the ideas that need to be explored because they have the potential to completely change how we treat cancer." He is married to Dawn Kua, who runs a nonprofit organization in Singapore.

2007 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Category

Corey Centen
Corey Centen
Nilesh Patel
Nilesh Patel
ENTRY NAME:
CPRGlove: Wearable CPR Training, Testing, and Assist Device
SCHOOL:
McMaster University (Ontario)

ADVISOR NAME:
Hubert de Bruin
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

As Corey Centen and Nilesh Patel sat in their college cafeteria at the beginning of their senior year, they discussed ideas for their final project. As they talked, they realized that even though both had been trained in CPR in high school, neither of them could really remember how to do it if faced with an emergency situation. They thought it would be great to have a device that could assist people with CPR in emergency situations and even help train them on the techniques. The idea for the CPRGlove was born.

Centen and Patel conducted research, and they were surprised to discover that a 2005 study concluded that CPR quality was well below the levels it should be, even when administered by health care professionals. Convinced that there was a real need for a device to assist with CPR, they began working on a prototype, outfitting a store-bought glove with various electronics. By the next year, their design had progressed to a custom-made glove with sensors and an LCD screen to give instructions and feedback when the user performs CPR. The glove is able to provide information on the rate, depth, force, and angle of compressions as well as the heart rate. It also speaks, providing verbal cues for the user.

What began as a senior project for them has turned into a business. Along with a fellow electrical and biomedical engineering classmate from McMaster, they formed Atreo Medical, Inc. to refine and market the device. They've been pleased to receive support and funding for working on the glove from various Canadian sources, and they are making headway in the U.S. as well.

Centen, 22, grew up in Ottawa, Ontario. Always interested in inventing as a youngster, he recalls continuously working on his own projects, even turning the dining room of his home into a mini-lab for his work. "My parents," he remembers, "were very generous." After graduating from Immaculata High School, he found things similar as a student at McMaster, where he created an unofficial lab in the corner of his dorm room. Centen graduated earlier this year with a degree in electrical and biomedical engineering and is the CEO of Atreo. The CPRGlove is an exciting project for him as he thinks about the lives that could potentially be saved. "Right now," he says, "we"re focusing on a final prototype for clinical trials, and then we"ll work on FDA approval."

Patel, 21, is from Toronto where he graduated from West Humber Collegiate Institute. He looks forward to graduating from McMaster with his electrical and biomedical engineering degree in 2008. Patel also remembers his inventiveness as a child, once using a cardboard box, a solar panel, and some LEDs to create a solar house. He sees the importance of the three main uses for the CPRGlove - to train individuals in CPR, to test their knowledge of it, and to use in emergency situations. Patel is also thrilled to know that the glove has been receiving positive attention. He notes, "After a story ran about our work with the glove, we were actually contacted by the lead researcher of the 2005 CPR study that we had researched." Patel is currently the chief technical officer of Atreo.

2006 Graduate WINNERS

Graduate Category

Craig Hashi
Craig Hashi
YiQian Zhu
YiQian Zhu
ENTRY NAME:
Tissue Engineered Vascular Graft
SCHOOL:
University of California,
Berkeley

ADVISOR NAME:
Song Li
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Craig Hashi and YiQian Zhu both know that blood vessels that clog and harden are a critical problem in the health care industry. One of the usual ways of treating clogged vessels is by using a graft to bypass the clog and restore normal blood flow. The graft is usually supplied from a vein or artery elsewhere in the patient's body.

Hashi and Zhu also know that all too often, bypass grafts can fail. They realized that another option was synthetic grafts, but these grafts also have their limitations. So, the team worked together to experiment with a new kind of graft. They take an FDA-approved polymer and create long, thin strands which are formed into a very thin mat. Then, the mat is seeded with bone marrow stem cells and left to culture. Once the cells have had a chance to grow, the mat is carefully rolled and formed into a tube. The tube - their graft - is then ready to implant as a vascular graft and as a fully-functioning blood vessel. Chances of rejection are greatly reduced because the patient"s own cells could be used to create the graft.

According to Hashi, "There are currently no tissue-engineered vascular grafts on the market. The idea of an off-the-shelf graft ready for the patient in time for surgery is exciting." He notes that it is helpful for him to step back and look at his projects from an engineering mindset. He remembers that as a youngster, it was natural for him to go into engineering because he was good at it. Not until he was in graduate school did he develop his healthy respect for biology.

Hashi, 24, of Torrance, California, graduated from South High School in 1999. His parents, Katsuo and Rumiko Hashi, also of Torrance, still own a landscaping business in the area. Hashi received his undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering from UCLA, and he is currently working on his Ph.D. in bioengineering at Berkeley.

Zhu, 31, originally from Shanghai, China, has been in the United States since 2003. A neurosurgeon by training, his expertise was instrumental in placing the grafts within the animal subjects and providing the medical knowledge needed to create the grafts. Zhu conducted all the in vivo techniques, and is looking forward to their invention being one day available on the market.

As a child, Zhu remembers times with his parents, a pediatrician and a general practitioner physician. "My parents would talk about medical things at dinner," he says. "They would take me to the hospital with them, and I began to know their world." Their influence shows, as Zhu went on to Fudan University Medical School, graduating with his medical degree in 1999. After four years working as a resident in training at Huashan Hospital, he traveled to the United States to undertake postdoctoral work at the University of California, San Francisco. Currently, he is in the bioengineering program at Berkeley and San Francisco, and he hopes to obtain his Ph.D. by 2009.

2006 Graduate WINNERS

Grand Prize

Matthew B. Haugland
Matthew B. Haugland
ENTRY NAME:
"Uncoupled surface layer" model
SCHOOL:
University of Oklahoma

ADVISOR NAME:
Kenneth Crawford
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

When Matt Haugland was a child in San Jose, California, he remembers that his parents gave him a small thermometer that he used to measure the temperature in different spots around his yard. Although the yard wasn't large, Haugland was fascinated by the temperature differences in the different parts of his yard. As he grew older, he became fascinated by the microclimates of the San Francisco Bay region and the reasons behind them.

Consequently, Haugland hoped to own land for the purpose of researching the microclimates on it. In 1999, he transferred from school in San Jose to the University of Oklahoma in search of affordable land. He bought a five-acre plot and installed several weather stations across it. Through his research, based on weather observations from these stations, Haugland developed a weather forecasting technique that accurately predicts nighttime temperatures.

As Haugland says, "I"m hoping that this model will help improve weather forecasts around the world." The implications of his work are broad, from helping farmers protect their crops from frost and freezing, to helping predict nighttime fog formation, the biggest weather-related cause of death in transportation.

"The idea of innovation really motivates me," comments Haugland. "Growing up in Silicon Valley, I was surrounded by a culture of finding new ways of doing things." Even as a child, Haugland thought about working with the weather, as when he planted cacti in his yard in hopes they would turn the land into a desert. Today, Haugland notes that he is often thinking about the way weather works and new ways of predicting it.

Haugland, 26, has come a long way from when he was a youngster concentrating on his backyard experiments. He is now hoping to run a successful business focused on microclimates and microscale weather forecasting. Already, Haugland has received interest internationally for his work.

Haugland attended Leigh High School in San Jose, graduating in 1997. After attending San Jose State University for two years, he transferred to the University of Oklahoma, receiving his bachelor's degree in 2001, his master's degree in 2002, and his Ph.D. in May of 2006, all in meteorology. His parents, James and Holly Haugland, continue to reside in the San Jose, California area.

2006 Undergraduate WINNERS

Undergraduate Category

Fan Yang
Fan Yang
ENTRY NAME:
Anti-adherent compounds for contact lenses
SCHOOL:
Johns Hopkins University

ADVISOR NAME:
Xiaobing Wang
ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Currently, 70 million people around the world wear contact lenses. Up to 20% of those people could end up contracting a lens-inducted infection. Fan Yang's strategy is to prevent infection-causing bacteria from adhering to contact lenses by coating the lenses with safe chemicals.

When Yang was just in the 8th grade, she interned in a lab. There, she worked on a project that looked for compounds that could adhere to bacteria. She was interested to discover that some compounds did not adhere. A few years later, she went to her optometrist for an eye check-up. She was warned away from contacts because of the possible risk of infection. Once she arrived at Johns Hopkins, she took these pieces of her past, put them together, and began work on her anti-adherent project using nano-techniques.

Yang, 18, isn"t always sure where her ideas come from. "Sometimes I feel like they just pop up," she says. "Sometimes I"m able to write them down. Then, I have to sort them out, read literature about them, and research." Regardless, when she is working on a problem, she is always excited when she finds a solution. As she notes, "It means I have finally done something that no one has ever done before." Ten minutes later, though, Yang finds herself at work on another problem, facing obstacles again.

When Yang was ten years old, she moved from Peking, China to Davis, California with her mother, Yan-Lei Liu, a laboratory technician at Davis Medical School. Although young, she remembers her childhood years in China. "I always like to solve problems," she says. "When I was five years old, we didn"t have air conditioning at home. So, I would open the refrigerator in the summer and sit in front of it to read my books. My grandmother finally hid and watched me, because she wanted to know why the electric bill was so high." In the sixth grade, in the U.S., she remembers becoming interested in microbiology after a school science project that caused her to examine bacteria levels before and after hand washing in order to find the reason why her mother always asked her to wash her hands before eating.

Currently studying biomaterial and nanomaterial engineering, Yang is a sophomore who hopes to attend dental school, and then eventually study for her Ph.D.

2004 WINNERS

Jwa-Min Nam
Jwa-Min Nam
Colby Shad Thaxton
Colby Shad Thaxton
ENTRY NAME:
Bio-bar-code amplified detection system
SCHOOL:
Northwestern University

ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Jwa-Min Nam is a chemist, and Shad Thaxton is a physician. Together, they invented a new technology with the potential to revolutionize their respective fields of chemistry and medicine.

The two graduate students at Northwestern University created what they call "bio barcode amplified detection systems." The complex process has a simple goal: to find miniscule amounts of microscopic biological materials. Because their invention is so much more sensitive and precise than previous types of tests, it could be used to detect chemical signs of Alzheimer's disease or types of cancer far earlier than conventional tests.

2004 WINNERS

Wei Gu
Wei Gu
ENTRY NAME:
Computerized microfluidic control for cell biology using Braille display
SCHOOL:
University of Michigan

ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Wei Gu's invention involves microfluidics, an emerging technology relying on microscopic control of liquid flows from medical purposes to chemical analysis. Gu has created an unusually simple, robust machine that acts as a miniature plumbing system, complete with microscopic pumps, valves, pipes, and mixing chambers. "I think in the future these devices will be as common as cell phones or laptops," Gu said, explaining that microfluidic machines could become powerful diagnostic tools for doctors, or allow patients to monitor their health more precisely than is possible today.

2004 WINNERS

Ozgur Sahin
Ozgur Sahin
ENTRY NAME:
Harmonic Cantilevers for nanoscale sensing
SCHOOL:
Stanford University

ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Sahin invented a dramatically improved type of Atomic Force Microscope, an exciting type of instrument capable of taking pictures of individual atoms. The AFM is used by a wide range of researchers, from people designing cutting-edge computer chips to biologists trying to learn the inner workings of cells. The AFM uses a tiny probe that vibrates over a sample, literally feeling the surface.

2003 WINNERS

Keith Aubin
Keith Aubin
Robert Reichenbach
Robert Reichenbach
Maxim Zalalutdinov
Maxim Zalalutdinov
ENTRY NAME:
Dome Shaped Micromechanical Oscillator for Telecommunications
SCHOOL:
Cornell University

ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The ever-increasing drive to make electronic circuits smaller and smaller is increasingly frustrated by certain types of components that refuse to shrink. These students found a solution by building a novel type of micromechanical oscillator: one shaped like a dome. Their oscillator resonates like a bell in response to light or heat. The dome is tiny and can be built on a chip. That makes it perfect for a wide range of electronic applications, especially in the field of telecommunications. Microscopic domes could replace many of the largest, most expensive parts contained in cells phones, among other devices.

2003 WINNERS

Deborah Loxam-Kohl
Deborah Loxam-Kohl
ENTRY NAME:
3-D Form Felting Machine
SCHOOL:
Alberta College of Art & Design

ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Although industrial flat felting machines exist, Loxam-Kohl was motivated to develop a method to produce a three-dimensional felted object directly from raw materials, with no further processing and with an automated agitation process.

2003 WINNERS

Jamie Link
Jamie Link
ENTRY NAME:
Optically Encoded Porous Silicon Particles
SCHOOL:
University of California,
San Diego

ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Link is a doctoral student in chemistry. She began a research project that investigated tiny sensors known as smart dust. She performs chemistry on the surface of the microscopic sensors and can cause them to be a particular color - for example, red. Then, the sensors can actually detect whatever substance Link has programmed them to detect, such as a toxin. As they find the toxin, the tiny sensors all align the same way, and collectively, the microscopic markers join together as a red spot to point out the toxic pollutant.

2003 WINNERS

Yunwei Cao
Yunwei Cao
Rongchao Jin
Rongchao Jin
Gabriella Metreaux
Gabriella Metreaux
ENTRY NAME:
Light-induced Synthesis of Silver Nanoprisms
SCHOOL:
Northwestern University

ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

The trio uses light to try and control the shape of silver nanoprisms. By amending the size and structure of the tiny particles with light, they produce a product with intense optical properties - nanoparticles of different bright colors that could be used for biological labeling, inks, specialized films, and cosmetics, just to name a few applications.

2003 WINNERS

Collette Shen
Collette Shen
ENTRY NAME:
Novel Method to Produce Insulin-secreting cells
SCHOOL:
Harvard University

ENTRY DESCRIPTION:

Shen knew that patients with type I diabetes must receive insulin everyday because their pancreas fails to produce it. Her goal became to create a way for stem cells to release insulin in a completely synthetic environment and then be transplanted into the body to provide a permanent source of insulin. Taking stem cells from the adult rat liver, she inserted them into a growth medium that was essentially a three-dimensional scaffold. Then, she stimulated the scaffold with different growth factors, and the cells produced structures similar to those in a healthy pancreas.

2002 WINNERS

Jeffrey Anker
Jeffrey Anker
ENTRY NAME:
MagMOONs - Magnetically MOdulated Optical Nanoprobes
SCHOOL:
University of Michigan

2002 WINNERS

Saul Griffith
Saul Griffith
ENTRY NAME:
Lens Molding Method and Apparatus
SCHOOL:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2002 WINNERS

Carlo Giovanni Traverso
Carlo Giovanni Traverso
ENTRY NAME:
Non-Invasive Test for Colorectal Cancer
SCHOOL:
Johns Hopkins University

2002 WINNERS

Lei Wang
Lei Wang
ENTRY NAME:
Genetically Encoded Novel Amino Acid
SCHOOL:
University of California,
Berkeley

2002 WINNERS

Yu Huang
Yu Huang
ENTRY NAME:
Nanocircuits
SCHOOL:
Harvard University

2002 WINNERS

Zachary Knight
Zachary Knight
ENTRY NAME:
Phosphorylation Mapping of Proteins
SCHOOL:
University of California,
San Francisco

2001 WINNERS

Dana S. Perkins
Dana S. Perkins
ENTRY NAME:
Gene Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease
SCHOOL:
University of Maryland

2001 WINNERS

Xiangfeng Duan
Xiangfeng Duan
ENTRY NAME:
Nanoscale Electronics and Optoelectronics from Nanowire Building Blocks
SCHOOL:
Harvard University

2001 WINNERS

Dhaval Doshi
Dhaval Doshi
ENTRY NAME:
Optically Adjustable Nanostructures
SCHOOL:
University of New Mexico

2001 WINNERS

Daniel Ersoy
Daniel Ersoy
Sascha Welz
Sascha Welz
ENTRY NAME:
Conversion of Silicon Carbide to Diamond
SCHOOL:
University of Illinois,
Chicago

2001 WINNERS

Michael H. Oddy
Michael H. Oddy
ENTRY NAME:
Electrokinetic Instability Micromixer
SCHOOL:
Stanford University

2001 WINNERS

Daniel A. Fletcher
Daniel A. Fletcher
ENTRY NAME:
Pulsed Liquid Microjet
SCHOOL:
Stanford University

2000 WINNERS

Emilie A. Porter
Emilie A. Porter
ENTRY NAME:
Beta-Amino Acid Oligomers for Use as an Antibiotic
SCHOOL:
University of Wisconsin

2000 WINNERS

Matthew B. Dickerson
Matthew B. Dickerson
Raymond R. Unocic
Raymond R. Unocic
ENTRY NAME:
Ceramic Composites Processing
SCHOOL:
The Ohio State University

2000 WINNERS

Daniel M. Hartmann
Daniel M. Hartmann
ENTRY NAME:
High Performance Polymer Microlenses
SCHOOL:
University of California,
San Diego

2000 WINNERS

Colin Bulthaup
Colin Bulthaup
Eric J. Wilhelm
Eric J. Wilhelm
ENTRY NAME:
Chip Fabrication by Liquid Embossing
SCHOOL:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2000 WINNERS

Balaji Srinivasan
Balaji Srinivasan
ENTRY NAME:
Fiber Lasers
SCHOOL:
University of New Mexico

1999 WINNERS

Warren C.W. Chan
Warren C.W. Chan
ENTRY NAME:
Luminescent Quantum Dots for Ultrasensitive Biological Detection
SCHOOL:
Indiana University

1999 WINNERS

Amy B. Smith
Amy B. Smith
ENTRY NAME:
Amtek Phase-Change Incubator for Use in Areas Without Electricity
SCHOOL:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1999 WINNERS

Tobin J. Fisher
Tobin J. Fisher
Marcus A. Malinosky
Marcus A. Malinosky
ENTRY NAME:
Planing Hull Catamaran Designed to Plane on the Water Rather than Displacing It
SCHOOL:
Yale University

1999 WINNERS

Lee H. Collins
Lee H. Collins
Jennifer E. Davis
Jennifer E. Davis
Marcus A. Malinosky
Marcus A. Malinosky
ENTRY NAME:
Twistmaster, a Jar-Opening Device for People with Disabilities
SCHOOL:
Yale University

1999 WINNERS

Thomas  Gehrke
Thomas Gehrke
Kevin J. Linthicum
Kevin J. Linthicum
ENTRY NAME:
Pendeo-epitaxial Growth of III-Nitrides for Use in Microelectronic Devices
SCHOOL:
North Carolina State University

1999 WINNERS

Andrew E. Neice
Andrew E. Neice
ENTRY NAME:
Porous Membrane Structure Control Device to Eliminate Macrovoids
SCHOOL:
University of Colorado 

1998 WINNERS

Jin-Ping Han
Jin-Ping Han
ENTRY NAME:
A New Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) Cell
SCHOOL:
Yale University

1998 WINNERS

Rohini Muthuswami
Rohini Muthuswami
ENTRY NAME:
Phosphouminoglycosides: Potentially curative strategies of chemotherapy for end-stage or hormonally-refractive cancer
SCHOOL:
University of Virginia

1998 WINNERS

Jeffrey C. Petruska
Jeffrey C. Petruska
ENTRY NAME:
Method and Apparatus for Selectivity Inhibiting Activity in Nerve Fibres
SCHOOL:
University of Florida

1998 WINNERS

Tamas Andor
Tamas Andor
David W. Burke
David W. Burke
Won Joon Chang
Won Joon Chang
Masayoshi Tsukioka
Masayoshi Tsukioka
ENTRY NAME:
Jeep Rear Suspension
SCHOOL:
The University of Arizona

1998 WINNERS

Zachary C. Hoisington
Zachary C. Hoisington
ENTRY NAME:
Variable Surface Area Parafoil
SCHOOL:
California Polytechnic State University

1998 WINNERS

Martin B. Montague
Martin B. Montague
ENTRY NAME:
VR Suspension/Drive
SCHOOL:
The George Washington University

1997 WINNERS

Robert Mucic
Robert Mucic
James Storhoff
James Storhoff
ENTRY NAME:
Colorimetric DNA detection with Au nanoparticles
SCHOOL:
Northwestern University

1997 WINNERS

Vijay Subramanian
Vijay Subramanian
ENTRY NAME:
Method of preventing corrosion of metals using silanes
SCHOOL:
University of Cincinnati

1997 WINNERS

Todd Waldman
Todd Waldman
ENTRY NAME:
Novel high-throughput screen for anticancer agents
SCHOOL:
Johns Hopkins University

1997 WINNERS

Elijah E. Cocks
Elijah E. Cocks
ENTRY NAME:
Enantiomorphic friction-stir welding head-pin
SCHOOL:
Dartmouth College

1997 WINNERS

Robert W. Chan
Robert W. Chan
ENTRY NAME:
Minimally-invasive optical biopsy
SCHOOL:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1996 WINNERS

Peter Langner
Peter Langner
ENTRY NAME:
Punch and die raised figure embossing assembly
SCHOOL:
Oregon State University

1996 WINNERS

Eric Gilbert
Eric Gilbert
ENTRY NAME:
Development of a PCB bioremediation process based on chemicals contained in spearmint
SCHOOL:
University of California,
Riverside

1996 WINNERS

Jonathon Hott
Jonathon Hott
ENTRY NAME:
A skeletal muscle-specific protein for the treatment of focal muscle spasm
SCHOOL:
Wayne State University School of Medicine/Howard Hughes Medical Institutes

1996 WINNERS

Gregg Favalora
Gregg Favalora
ENTRY NAME:
Multiplanar autostereoscopic imaging system
SCHOOL:
Yale University

1996 WINNERS

Megan Crosby
Megan Crosby
J. Andrew Culp
J. Andrew Culp
Angelos Dassios
Angelos Dassios
John G. Wilde
John G. Wilde
ENTRY NAME:
The Tredchair
SCHOOL:
Dartmouth College

1996 WINNERS

Jason Annes
Jason Annes
Nathan Ballou
Nathan Ballou
Ryan Ritter
Ryan Ritter
ENTRY NAME:
Ozone generator for reduced auto emissions
SCHOOL:
Illinois Institute of Technology

1995 WINNERS

Gary L. Bowlin
Gary L. Bowlin
ENTRY NAME:
Electrostatic endothelial cell seeding: apparatus and procedure
SCHOOL:
The University of Akron

1995 WINNERS

Subbarao L. Guddati
Subbarao L. Guddati
ENTRY NAME:
The Chromyl Chloride Process
SCHOOL:
Illinois Institute of Technology

1995 WINNERS

Manoj Mehrotra
Manoj Mehrotra
ENTRY NAME:
TMBS rectifier
SCHOOL:
North Carolina State University

1995 WINNERS

Anthony DelNegro
Anthony DelNegro
ENTRY NAME:
The curb traversing wheelchair
SCHOOL:
University of Delaware

1995 WINNERS

Stephen B. Katsaros
Stephen B. Katsaros
ENTRY NAME:
Suspended pivotal bike storage rack
SCHOOL:
Purdue University

1995 WINNERS

Ron E. Smith
Ron E. Smith
ENTRY NAME:
Dol-Fin (high aspect ratio diving fin)
SCHOOL:
University of Washington

1994 WINNERS

Simon H. Friedman
Simon H. Friedman
ENTRY NAME:
The application of fullerenes to the inhibition of the HIV-1 protease
SCHOOL:
University of California,
San Francisco

1994 WINNERS

Stephan J. Stranick
Stephan J. Stranick
ENTRY NAME:
Tunable microwave frequency AC scanning tunneling microscope
SCHOOL:
The Pennsylvania State University

1994 WINNERS

Jiansheng Tang
Jiansheng Tang
ENTRY NAME:
A superior catalyst for the synthesis of industrially important isocyanurates
SCHOOL:
Iowa State University

1994 WINNERS

Karl R. Etzel
Karl R. Etzel
ENTRY NAME:
Spherical, singularity-free robotic wrist
SCHOOL:
University of Notre Dame

1994 WINNERS

Tia N. Fehlig
Tia N. Fehlig
ENTRY NAME:
Corrective horseshoeing for contracture of the distal inerphalangeal joint
SCHOOL:
Montana State University

1994 WINNERS

George A. Kembel
George A. Kembel
John A. Kembel
John A. Kembel
Terry K. Tullis
Terry K. Tullis
ENTRY NAME:
Paraplegic ski machine
SCHOOL:
Stanford University

1993 WINNERS

Jonathan H. Spindel
Jonathan H. Spindel
ENTRY NAME:
Round window electromagnetic (implantable) hearing aid
SCHOOL:
University of Virginia

1993 WINNERS

Lora B. Younkman
Lora B. Younkman
ENTRY NAME:
Ceramic sensor for carbon monoxide detection
SCHOOL:
The Ohio State University

1993 WINNERS

Bing-Long Zhang
Bing-Long Zhang
ENTRY NAME:
Process to increase drain-source breakdown voltage in thin-film N-channel SOI/MOSFET
SCHOOL:
Yale University

1993 WINNERS

Michael E. Freytag
Michael E. Freytag
Christine K. Scholl (Walter)
Christine K. Scholl (Walter)
ENTRY NAME:
Safety electrical outlet
SCHOOL:
Ohio Northern University

1992 WINNERS

Mark A. Harper
Mark A. Harper
ENTRY NAME:
Codeposition of chromium and silicon diffusion coatings on Fe-based alloys using pack cementation
SCHOOL:
The Ohio State University

1992 WINNERS

Robert J. Schilling
Robert J. Schilling
ENTRY NAME:
Novel system for oral delivery of peptides and proteins
SCHOOL:
Purdue University

1992 WINNERS

James Versalovic
James Versalovic
ENTRY NAME:
Fingerprinting microorganisms using repetitive DNA sequence
SCHOOL:
Baylor College of Medicine

1991 WINNERS

Robert Bianco
Robert Bianco
ENTRY NAME:
Process for simultaneously chromizing and aluminizing nickel-base superalloys for use in gas turbines
SCHOOL:
The Ohio State University

1991 WINNERS

Johannes H. Thijssen
Johannes H. Thijssen
ENTRY NAME:
System for the detection of aromatic compounds in combustion effluents
SCHOOL:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1991 WINNERS

Yuri T. Yamamoto
Yuri T. Yamamoto
ENTRY NAME:
Root-specific gene promoter for improving the resistance of crops to disease
SCHOOL:
North Carolina State University

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